Kapha dosha is made of earth and water, with water being the predominant element in this dosha. Vata dosha is responsible for the movements of the body and mind; Pitta provides heat as well as transformation and digestive power. Kapha dosha, on the other hand, offers much needed protection. This earthy, watery dosha provides the physical structure of the body. Also, the water element lubricates the joints, moisturizes the skin, and provides endurance, vigor, and vitality (1).
Kapha Dosha Qualities
The elements of earth and water are associated with the qualities of cool, cloudy, dense, heavy, slow, smooth, soft, static, and oily. They are also correlated with being moist and gross.
Kapha Dosha Characteristics
These qualities manifest in people with a predominance of Kapha dosha in their constitution. Specifically, here are some of the characteristics to look for in Kapha types.
Heavy & Dense
Individuals who are predominantly Kapha possess heaviness rather than lightness. In terms of physical structure, this means that they typical have a strong, solid build. They have good muscle development and may be large-boned and voluptuous. Their skin will have a smooth, thick feeling. This does not mean that all Kapha types are overweight. It simply means that their underlying structure is more substantial and solid compared to the lighter and moderate frames of their Vata and Pitta counterparts. There is also a fullness to Kapha types that is exhibited as thick, lustrous hair, large eyes, thick eyelashes, and strong nails and teeth.
Coolness is another quality that is exhibited by Kapha types. Composed of chiefly earth and water, they lack the strong fire to create heat. Of course, everyone is made up of some combination of the five elements and three doshas, so Kapha types have their share of heat and fire. However, it is a lower flame compared to Pitta types. If you are mostly Kapha dosha, your body temperature will shade toward coolness. Yet, you may not suffer from intense cold and cold extremities as Vata types tend to.
Slow & Smooth
Kapha types tend to be slow, smooth, and graceful in their movements. Not fond of rushing, they speak thoughtfully and deliberately. When it comes to completing projects and making decisions, Kapha types like to go slow and steady. They are dependable and will get the job done with much care—just don’t rush a Kapha!
Oily & Moist
Pitta types have an oily quality, Vata types run dry, and Kapha types have a natural watery moistness. Again, the water element keeps their joints and skin lubricated. If you are someone who rarely needs to use lotions or body oil (and your skin remains smooth and soft), you probably have a fair amount of Kapha in your constitution. Having smooth, moist skin and not worrying about dry eyes or dry hair is definitely a pro of being a Kapha type. On the other hand, all that water can lead to imbalances such as water retention, swelling, and excess mucous.
Static & Stable
One of the many pluses to having a Kapha type in your life, is that they tend to be very stable, nurturing, and dependable. The earth element lends a certain stability to Kapha types. This means sturdiness and stability of body as well as mind. Kapha types like routine. They may take time and deliberation to commit to a career, partnership, or other undertaking, but once they are in, they are in for the long haul. Steadiness and stability are virtues. On the other hand, stability can become complacency if Kapha types don’t stay tuned in and aware of what is and isn’t working. These unshakeable types can, as Robert Svoboda (1999) puts it, “stabilize themselves right out of mental acuity or agility” (p.43) (2). Meaning, it’s important for Kapha types to balance their fortitude with a periodic assessment of their true levels of engagement, happiness, and fulfillment. Do I want to keep steadily walking down this path, may be a good question for Kapha types to ask themselves from time to time.
Kapha In and Out of Balance
Every dosha has its pros and cons, and Kapha dosha certainly has its bright side. When Kapha types are balanced, they exhibit endurance, patience, longevity, and compassion. Conversely, Kapha types need to be wary of a Kapha excess, which may manifest itself in a variety of ways. Learn more about Kapha imbalances and the symptoms here.
Kapha Times in Nature
Kapha Time of Day
The rise and fall of the doshas ebb and flow with the time of day. Each dosha has two distinct times of day in which it shines strongest. 6-10 am and 6-10 pm are the times of day in which Kapha dosha is predominant. You can read more about the daily dosha cycle in our post What Are the Ayurveda Times of Day? Essentially, in planning our your daily schedule and routine, it can be helpful to keep the doshas in mind. For instance, since Kapha dosha is stable in nature, 6-10am and 6-10pm are great times for creating any kind of routine that you really want to stick. For instance, if you want to establish a daily practice of physical movement, get Kapha time on your side. Also, the Kapha time of day is perfect for connecting with friends and family, as Kapha possesses nurturing, cohesive qualities.
Given that Kapha dosha is cool and moist, the Kapha time of year is the cool, moist time of year—late winter through early spring. Depending on where you live, there may be some variation to this. However, the bottom line is that when the climate is cool or cold and there is moisture in the air, Kapha dosha is strongest. Also, Kapha is associated with growth and new beginnings, so it is fitting that spring is associated with Kapha dosha (3). What does this mean in terms of diet, lifestyle, and other choices? When a dosha is at its strongest, it is best to counteract the qualities of that dosha by bringing in the opposite. We will examine this more as you read a little further, but essentially Kapha is balanced by heat, dryness, lightness, and mobility.
Tips for Balancing Kapha Dosha
In general, Kapha is best balanced with warmth, lightness and dryness since it is naturally cool, heavy and moist. Here are some useful tips for keeping Kapha balanced:
Eat a Kapha Pacifying Diet
If you have a Kapha constitution or are experiencing a Kapha imbalance (an excess of Kapha dosha), you will want to eat foods that reduce or pacify Kapha. Since the qualities of Kapha are heavy, cool, damp/moist, dense, stable, you will want to focus on foods that are light, warm, dry, energizing. The best tastes for Kapha dosha are bitter, pungent, and astringent. Kapha types can eat some foods that are sweet, salty, and sour, but they should emphasize bitter, pungent, and astringent tasting foods. This is especially true if there is a Kapha imbalance or if its the Kapha time of year (late winter-spring). Some examples of bitter foods that balance Kapha are dark, leafy greens such as dandelion greens, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, and arugula. Pungent spices and foods such as black pepper, dry ginger, cayenne, and radish are good. Astringent foods such as legumes, rye, corn, millet, apples, and cranberries are also very balancing for Kapha (4).
Maintain a Daily Routine for Kapha Dosha
Engaging in daily practices that are warming, stimulating, and energizing is balancing for Kapha dosha. This is because Kapha is characterized by the cool, heavy, stable qualities. Furthermore, Kapha types need to guard against lethargy and complacency. Here are some activities and tips for helping to balance Kapha throughout the day:
Embrace a Kapha Morning RoutineStarting the morning off right can help keep Kapha types out of the doldrums.
- Wake early. Kapha types are naturally deep sleepers, so they may be prone to sleeping in. However, sleeping in late can produce grogginess and lethary. Kapha types do best when they rise before sunrise or 6am.
- Try dry brushing. Dry brushing is a practice that energizes and promotes circulation and lymph flow. It is done with either a body brush or special silk garshana gloves. This practice is easy to do. Before bathing simply dry brush the body in long, circular strokes, moving toward the heart to stimulate the flow of lymph back to the heart. You can follow dry brushing with self-massage using a light oil like almond oil. Mustard oil is also great as it is warming and stimulating. Energizing scents such as grapefruit, bergamot, and tulsi can also be added to your massage oil (4). Dry brushing and oil massage are ideally done before bathing.
- Jal neti to keep the nasal passages clear. Using a neti pot to clear the nasal passages is an especially supportive practice for Kapha types. This is because Kapha types are prone to excess mucous and congestion. Also, the respiratory tract is considered a seat of Kapha dosha (1). Jal neti, or nasal rinsing with water, should be done with a ceramic neti pot, purified water warmed to body temperature, and finely ground non-iodized salt.
Of the three doshas, Kaphas have the strongest endurance. There are exceptions to the rule, but they also tend to naturally have more ojas. Vata types like movement and Pitta types can be quite athletic and competitive. But, Kapha types are naturally hardy with good stamina. They also need movement more than the other two types, though some form of physical movement is important for everyone. Spring (Kapha season) is a great time of year to engage in vigorous physical activity that makes you sweat. And, this is important for Kapha types all year round. If you are predominantly Kapha dosha, aim for physical activity that raises your heart rate and makes you sweat. This will help counteract the lethargy, complacency, and weight gain that can accompany Kapha excess. Running, hiking, cycling, dancing, and warming yoga practices are helpful.
Stay Warm and Dry
Since Kapha types are prone to coolness and moisture, they benefit from dry heat. Use a dehumidifier when necessary and try to dress in layers to ensure warmth.
Kapha types can fall subject to lethargy and complacency if their day-to-day routine is too rigid and stagnant. It's important for Kapha types to seek out stimulation through new activities and experiences.
Also, of all the doshic types, Kapha types need the least sleep. Be sure to get adequate rest, but many Kapha types benefit from getting up with or before dawn. The fresh, early morning hours are a great time to do your morning practices, take a teaspoon of Chyawanprash and some spicy tea, and face the day!
Kapha types have a tendency to hold on to objects and resist change, which is why it's good for Kaphas to periodically clean and clear out their spaces.
Leverage the 5 Senses
Ayurveda tells us that we can leverage the five senses to encourage balance and harmony based on our dosha. Consider the following recommendations to pacify Kapha.
Kapha Tastes: As mentioned above, the best tastes for Kapha types are bitter, pungent, and astringent, as these flavors are stimulating and help spark the digestive and metabolic systems.
Kapha Touch: When it comes to the sense of touch, Kapha types benefit from stimulating experiences like dry brushing and deep tissue massages that are more vigorous.
Kapha Scents: In general, go for bright, warming, clarifying, stimulating scents and colors. Citrus scents such as grapefruit, lemon, and orange are good. Also, pine, tulsi, and cedar invoke a sharpness that benefits Kapha. Spicy smells (in the form of essential oils or simmering spices) such as black pepper, cinnamon, and clove will bring warmth and stimulation. In terms of how to enjoy these scents, there are myriad ways! You can add a few drops of essential oil to your massage oil or bath. Also essential oils can be diffused in the air using an essential oil diffuser. Furthermore, a simple, cozy way to enjoy natural scents is to simmer spices in a pot of water on the stove. You can use whole, dried spices (peppercorns, clove buds, cinnamon bark) or powdered spices. Simply add the spices to a pot of water and simmer uncovered until you have adequately diffused the scent throughout your home.
Kapha Visuals: In terms of color, the same principles apply—go for light, warm, and bright. Red, orange, yellow, and gold are good. Sattvic colors such as white, blue, and violet are also helpful for Kapha dosha as these colors are purifying—something that Kapha types can often benefit from (3). Dark earth tones should be minimized as Kapha types naturally have enough earth element in their constitution. Here are a few ideas to add these colors to your life:
- Flowers and house plants
- Decorations such as art, lights, and vases
- Curtains, drapes, and tablecloths
- Wall paint and wallpaper
- Wardrobe and accessories
Keep in mind that you don't have to completely redecorate your home or revamp your wardrobe in order to emphasize Kapha-pacifying colors. Something as simple as decorating your home with brightly colored flowers or choosing to wear an orange scarf instead of a brown one can make a difference in one's mood and outlook.
Kapha Sounds: For sounds, chanting is an effective way to work with the doshas on a subtle level. "Ram" (pronounced "rum") is a good mantra for Kapha as it corresponds to the fire element. "Ham" (pronounced "hum") is also helpful in stimulating the agni (digestive fire). In addition, if purification is needed, "Hrim" (pronouced "hreem") is great for clarifying and invoking joy (5).
Kapha Dosha Inside and Out
There are many advantages to being a Kapha type, among them endurance, patience, longevity, and compassion. On the other hand Kapha types need to be wary of becoming lethargic and complacent—especially in the winter and spring. By focusing on practices that encourage lightness, brightness, warmth, and energy—inside and out—the best qualities of Kapha dosha can shine through.
Greta Kent-Stoll is a Certified Ayurvedic Practitioner (NAMA), as well as a writer, editor, and Certified Iyengar Yoga Teacher. Her Ayurveda practice is based in Asheville, North Carolina and she is the co-owner of Iyengar Yoga Asheville.
(1) Lad, V. (2009). Ayurveda: The science of self-healing: A practical guide. Twin Lakes, WI: Lotus Press. (2) Svoboda, R. (1999). Prakriti: Your Ayurvedic Constitution. Twin Lakes, WI: Lotus Press. (3) Halpern, M. (2012). Principles and practices of ayurvedic medicine (10th ed.). Nevada City, CA: California College of Ayurveda. (4) O’Donnell, K. (2015). The everyday Ayurveda cookbook: A seasonal guide to eating and living well. Boulder, CO: Shambhala. (5) Frawley, D. (2000). Ayurvedic healing: A comprehensive guide. Twin Lakes, WI: Lotus Press.